Marhaban of Ramadan. Ahead of this blessed month, let Muslims around the world make Ramadan a momentum of change. The implementation of worship in this holy month is expected to increase the closeness and quality of relationship with God Almighty who gave birth to humility and noble morals.
Through increased closeness and relationship with God in worship during this holy month of Muslims, Muslims around the world are expected to be able to spread the values of peace, goodness, moral excellence, as well as variety and virtues in life. The month of Ramadan as a vehicle to strengthen brotherhood.
The formation of pious Muslims who are formed from the implementation of worship during the month of Ramadan is expected to be human beings who radiate enlightenment in personal life, family, community, nation, and the universe by carrying the mission of mercy lil alamin.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF FASTING RAMADAN FOR A MUSLIM
|The atmosphere in a village before breaking the fast in the month of Ramadan.|
(Photo By: Irma Yunita)
Linguistically, fasting means al-Imsak (restraining). And according to the term sharia fasting is refraining from things that cancel fasting starting from the rise of dawn (entry of dawn time) to sunset with other intentions and provisions that have been established by sharia.
RAMADAN FASTING PROPOSITION
Ramadan fasting is mandatory for every Muslim who is mukallaf (puberty and sensible). God says in QS. Al-Baqoroh 183:
"O believers, it is obligatory upon you to fast ( Ramadan) as is required of those before you, that you may become god willing." (QS. Al-Baqarah: 183).
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said:
"Islam is built on five (5) cases: Testifying that there is no god but Allah and witnessing that
Prophet Muhammad is the messenger of Allah, establishing prayers, paying zakat, performing worship Hajj to baitulloh and fast in the month of Ramadan." (HR. Muslim)
KINDS OF FASTING
Broadly speaking, the law of fasting is divided into four:
1. Mandatory fasting, such as Ramadan fasting, nadzar fasting and qadla',
2. Fasting of the sunah, such as fasting Monday and Thursday, fasting of the day of Arafat (the 9th of Dzulhijjah), fasting day 'Ashura (the 10th of Muharram), fasting 6 days in the month of Shawwal, fasting David (a day of fasting, a day not) and others,
3. Makruh fasting, such as specializing in fasting on Friday, Saturday, or Sunday without being connected to the day before or after,
4. Haram fasting, such as fasting carried out on eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha, days tasyriq (11th, 12th and 13th of Dzulhijjah), fasting on the day of syak10, fasting in the latter half of the month Sha'ban unless connected to one day earlier, done in order to do fasting is mandatory or already has the habit of fasting before.
Fasting circumcision carried out by the wife without the permission of her legal husband is haram. So if you want to doing the sunbathing fast, the wife must first get permission from the husband.
THREE LEVELS OF FASTING
There are three levels / levels of fasting quality as follows :
1. Shaumul' general (general fasting), which is fasting that only refrains from eating, drinking and other things that cancel fasting,
2. Shaumul khushush (special fasting), which is fasting that is carried out as a general fast and coupled with keeping oral, ear, mouth, sight and all limbs from sinful acts, both minor sins and great sins,
3. Shaumu khushushil khushush (very special fasting), that is, fasting performed as special fasting coupled with fasting from bad desires, worldly thoughts and restraining the heart from things other than God in totality,
MANDATORY FASTING REQUIREMENTS
The mandatory requirement means that if a person has fulfilled these conditions, then it is mandatory for him to perform fasting in the holy month of Ramadan. If one of these conditions is not fulfilled in a person, then Ramadan fasting becomes not mandatory for him. These conditions are:
So non-Muslims are not obliged to fast and are not obliged to recite' when he embraces Islam. As for the apostate, he is still obliged to recite the fasts that he has left if he returns to Islam,
So it is not mandatory for children who have not been puberty to fast even though the fast is legally done by him if he has reached tamyiz,
So it is not mandatory to fast and it is not mandatory to take a pilgrimage' for a madman caused not because of carelessness. And it is mandatory to say' if the madness is caused because of carelessness like crazy caused by drugs deliberately,
Able to fast
So fasting is not mandatory for the elderly, sick, heavy workers and others.
Holy of haidl and nifas,
Settled (not a traveler),
Although Ramadan fasting is not mandatory for young children, it is mandatory for parents to order their children who have reached the age of 7 years to fast and beat him at the age of 10 years if they do not heed his orders. This is done to train children to get used to fasting after puberty. Commanding the fast and hitting the child is done if the child is able / strong fasting.
FASTING FOR TRAVELLERS
The traveler is allowed to leave the fast even though he is able to fast with the following three conditions:
- Traveling is done before dawn (entry at dawn),
- Minimum travel distance reaches masafah al-Qashri (82 KM),
- Traveling mubah, not traveling maxiat, such as going with the aim of robbing,
In addition to no obligation to fast, travelers who meet the three provisions above are also not obliged intent at night. However, he is obliged to observe the abandoned fast.
If the above provisions are not met, such as traveling after entering dawn, or not reaching the qashri period, then travelers are required to fast and fasting intentions at night. And if in the middle of the road has an objection to continue fasting, then he is allowed to break the fast and is obliged to recite'.
FASTING FOR THE SICK AND ELDERLY
In the study of fasting fiqh, sick people divided into two groups :
1. Sick people who still have hope of recovery
This category can break the fast if he experiences objections / fatigue with fasting, he is not obliged to pay fidyah and obliged to recite the abandoned fast.
2. The sick person who has no hope of recovery
This category, not mandatory fasting, not obliged to recite' and obliged to pay fidyah.
The elderly who are no longer able to fast, the law of fasting and the consequences for it are the same as the sick category there is no hope of recovery.
FASTING FOR PREGNANT AND LACTATING WOMEN
Pregnant and lactating women are allowed to leave fasting if they fear for safety Himself or the baby. As for the legal consequences received there are details as follows:
1. Mandatory qadla' and not mandatory fidyah, that is, if only worried about his safety or accompanied by concerns for the safety of the baby,
2. Mandatory qadla' and fidyah, that is, if only worried about the safety of the baby.
FASTING FOR HEAVY WORKERS
For heavy workers, such as farmers, building porters and others are required to carry out Fasting and intentions at night. Then if the day experiences fatigue, he is allowed to break the fast and must break the fast and must be established' fasting that is abandoned and not mandatory fidyah.
LEGAL REQUIREMENTS OF FASTING
Legal conditions are the things that make fasting valid. If one of these conditions is not met, then the fast is not valid. These conditions are:
3. Tamyiz, then the fast of a child who has not tamyiz, the law is not legal, in contrast to the little boy who has tamyiz,
4. Knowing the legal times to fast,
5. Holy from menstruation and nifas. So that fasting is punished void if there is apostasy, menstruation, nifas or crazy in the middle of fasting even if only in a short time.
Epilepsy and hangovers that are not due to carelessness do not cancel the fast as long as they still find the rest of the time during the day even if only briefly.
PILLARS OF FASTING
Like other worship, fasting also has pillars that must be done. The pillars of fasting are:
Fasting intentions must be done every day at night (before the entry of dawn time). Here is an example of Ramadan's fasting intentions:
I intend to fast tomorrow to fulfill the obligations of the month of Ramadan this year. Because of Allah
Just in case the fast remains valid when one day forgets the intention, preferably on the first day The month of Ramadan intends taqlid (accordingly) to Imam Malik who allows fasting intentions Ramdhan is only at the beginning. Lafadz intends the following:
I intend to fast during the whole month of Ramadan this year, following Imam Malik, to carry out the obligations of Allah ta'ala
And the existence of this way does not mean that we no longer need intentions every day. But enough just as a way out when completely forgotten.
2. Refrain from things that cancel fasting such as eating, drinking and so on
THINGS THAT BREAK THE FAST
The things that break the fast are :
- The entry of objects into the inner part of the limb through an open cavity, such as the mouth, ears, nose, qubul and rectum,
- Deliberately vomiting,
- Having sex for people who understand the law is haram, there is an element of deliberateness and there is no element of coercion, Sperm discharge caused by masturbation or masturbation, either with your own hands Or someone else,
Drunkenness, fainting and epilepsy if they occur throughout the day while fasting. Different if you still find a short time when fasting, then fasting is still legal,
- Give birth.
CONSEQUENCES OF IMSAK FOR THOSE WHO BREAK THE FAST
In the month of Ramadan, certain people are required imsak (refrain from cases that cancel the fast) even though the fast has been canceled. These people are:
- The one who deliberately cancels his fast without udzur,
- People who forget not the intention of fasting at night,
- People who eat sahur with thoughts have not entered at dawn and it turns out that the guess is wrong,
- The person who breaks the fast with the assumption that the sun has set and it turns out that his conjecture is wrong,
- The one who thought that the day was the 30th of sha'ban and turned out to have entered the month of Ramadan.
- People who because of carelessness so that they already swallow water when gargling or Other.
In addition to the obligations of imsak, these people are also obliged to recite the abandoned fasting.
FIDYAH FASTING OF THE DEAD
In shafi'i fiqh, the dead who leave the debt of fasting are divided into two:
People who are not obliged to be betrayed
That is, the one who leaves the fast because of udzur and he has no chance to "I'm sorry", for example, the pain continues to death. There is no obligation whatsoever to the heirs about fasting left by mayit, either in the form of fidyah or fasting.
People who must be betrayed
That is, the one who leaves fasting without udzur or because of udzur but he finds a time that allows to recite fasting.
According to Qaul Jadid, it is mandatory for heirs / guardians to issue fidyah for mayit amounting to one mud staple food for every day of fasting left behind. The cost of payment of fidyah is taken from mayit's estate.
In this opinion, fasting should not be done in order to fulfill the dependents of mayite. Meanwhile, according to Qaul Qadim, the guardian / heir can choose between two options, pay fidyah or fast for mayite.
Qaul qadim in this matter is superior to qaul jadid, even more often in the fatwa of the scholars, because it is supported by many scholars of tarjih experts. The above provisions apply when tirkah (mayite property) is sufficient to pay for the mayit fasting fidyah.
If tirkah does not fulfill or mayit does not leave property at all, then there is no obligation whatsoever for the guardian / heir, either fasting for mayit or paying fidyah, but the law is circumcision.
CONSEQUENCES OF BELATEDLY QADLA' FASTING RAMADAN
The one who ends qadla' fasting Ramadan, while he allows to recite', until the next Ramadan comes, then he sinned and obliged to pay fidyah one mud staple food for per day of fasting left behind. This fidyah is required as a reward for the delay is to recite Ramadan's fast.
Unlike the person who does not allow to recite', such as udzur sick or safarnya continues until entering the next Ramadan, then there is no fidyah obligation for him, he is only obliged to recite fasting.
In the opinion of al-Ashah (the strong), the fidyah of this category becomes multiplied with the passage of the round of years. For example, people have a dependent qadla' fasting a day in 2022, he did not go toqadla' until entering Ramadan in 2024, then with the passage of two years (two rounds of Ramadan), the obligation of fidyah doubled to two mud.
Contributor : Jakfar Shadiq